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血清学实验原理

作者:日水生物来源:青岛日水培养基生产厂家 日期:2016-09-14 10:17

血清学反应

血清学反应是指相应的抗原与抗体在体外一定条件下作用,可出现肉眼可见的沉淀、凝集现象。在微生物检验中,常用血清学反应来鉴定分离到的细菌,以最终确认检测结果。

抗原

是指能刺激机体免疫系统产生免疫应答而生成抗体和致敏淋巴细胞等免疫应答产物,并能与之发生特异性结合的物质。产生的相应抗体与抗原结合,形成抗原—抗体复合物,产生免疫反应,从而保护机体不受抗原侵害而造成破坏。一般抗原都是外来物体,如细菌、病毒、寄生虫等 。

抗体

机体受外来抗原物质刺激后,产生的一种与该抗原发生特异性结合的免疫球蛋白(Ig) 被分为G,A,M, E, D等几类. 最典型的抗体是IgG, 有Y型三维结构, 包含两套重链和轻链。

凝集反应

颗粒性抗原(细菌、红细胞等)与相应抗体结合,在电解质参与下所形成的肉眼可见的凝集现象,称为凝集反应(Agglutination reaction)。其中的抗原称为凝集原,抗体称为凝集素。直接凝集反应

颗粒性抗原如细菌和细胞与相应抗体直接结合所出现的反应。

 


 

Serological reaction
 
Serological reaction refers to the deposition and agglutination of the corresponding antigen and antibody under certain conditions in vitro. In microbiological testing, serological reactions are often used to identify isolated bacteria, so as to finally confirm the test results.
 
antigen
 
It is the substance that can stimulate the immune system of the body to produce the immune response, and generate the immune response products such as antibodies and sensitized lymphocytes, and can specifically combine with it. The resulting antibodies bind to the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex and producing an immune response, thus protecting the body from antigens and causing damage. General antigens are foreign objects, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and so on.
 
The antibody
 
The body by external antigen stimulation, combined with the antigen specificity of immunoglobulin (Ig) is divided into G, A, M, E, D, etc. A few classes. The most typical is antibody IgG, type Y three-dimensional structure, contains two sets of heavy chain and light chain.
 
agglutination
 
Granular antigen (bacteria, red blood cells, etc.) binds to the corresponding antibodies, and the visible Agglutination phenomenon formed under the participation of electrolytes is called Agglutination reaction. The antigen is called agglutinin, and the antibody is called agglutinin. Direct agglutination
 
Reactions in which granular antigens such as bacteria and cells bind directly to the corresponding antibodies.

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